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Beyond Penn's Treaty

Journal of a Journey

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of the undertakers attending. I discovered it to be
an excellent seat, and it appeared to be a strong mill;
but upon trial in our presence it was far from answer-
ing our expectations according to the contract, by
not sawing half as fast as we believed such a stream-
head and fall would do if the workmanship had been
effectually executed. The chiefs said they were
ready to pay off the contract if we would say it was
well done, according to contract; and on our confer-
ring with the rest of our company the next day, we
advised them not to pay off the contract until it was
completed. As I rode this twelve miles up the creek
and back again through the Indian reserve I think a
great part of it is equal if not superior to any piece
of land of equal quantity I ever saw. I believe there
are more than a thousand acres upon which there
might have been more than two tons of hay to the
acre mowed and made the present year.

2d, and first of the week.

In the morning we set
off and arrived at the Indian village, in their council
house, about eleven o'clock; but we had to wait until
near four in the afternoon before what we thought a
competent number collected. They generally appear
to be a more indolent, careless, and some of them
intemperate people than those at Allegheny

and Cat-
a few instances excepted, particularly one
called the Young King and another called Pol-
who are sober, temperate men, and as intent
upon being farmers as any we have seen. The Young
having cleared and plowed a good deal of land,
has several horses, a very good yoke of oxen, and
seven milch cows; and it is said Pollardrather ex-
ceeds him. I hope their example may induce many
more to follow them, there being the greatest num-
ber on this reserve of any in the Seneca nation.
When the Young King, Red Jacket, Farmer's Brother,
Pollard, Jack Berry, and five or six other chiefs were
collected with some young men and women, we pro-
posed either going back or opening the council. They
then went in the council house and after sitting a
short space, Thomas Stewardson in a brief manner
informed them the reason of our coming into their
settlement; and although there did not appear to be
the same desire of improvement in many of the In-
dians in this settlement as those we have been at be-
fore, which I believe is much owing to the opportu-
nity they have of being corrupted by the example of
white people at New Amsterdam, which is a very dis-
sipated place, yet he felt encouraged to endeavor to
stimulate them to industry and to refrain from spirit-
uous liquors. It was not a very comfortable, animat-
ing time as yet with them, yet I was not easy to omit
opening divers matters to their consideration in a
summary way, which contained a good deal of the
heads of what I mentioned at the other places; which
seemed to attract their attention. I also informed
them I had seen a good deal of the land contained
in their reserve that is excellent; and if they would
be industrious they might live well; but if they would
not, but followed the practice of drinking, they would
lose the little good land they now have, their wives
and children would have to lie down under the snow
and go to sleep without anything to eat or to keep
them warm.

John Shoemaker

advised them to settle farther
up the creek, where the land is so very good, and not
strive to huddle together so close; which advice
seemed to please them very well.

Red Jacket

then addressed us in a polite and mas-
terly manner in which he displayed his talents as an
orator in a methodical and flowery style near half an
hour. He took in every part of the advice commu-
nicated to them by us, in regular order, and para-
phrased upon it, with the frequent expression of
thanks to the Quakers, recounting their kindness to
the Indian from the first settlement of Pennsylvania;
and concluded with endeavoring to assure us if we
would come and see them two years hence, we should
find them much improved in farming, and also in
the disuse of whiskey. And notwithstanding I be-
lieved his speech was calculated to endeavor to please
us, and that there was much less sincerity or reality
in his intentions than in those of whom we have
conferred with before, yet I could have sat, I think,
patiently two or three hours to hear him exert his
smooth, oily, oratorical abilities.

We then left them. Young King

and Pollard in
a particular manner parted with us very affectionate-
ly. Returned to our lodging at a tavern in New Am-
this being the third night.


Thomas Stewardson

and Jacob Taylor set off
for Batavia in order to see J. Ellicot, in order to agree
upon Tunesasa Creek, and also to pay a visit to the
Indians at the Tonnewanto. John Shoemaker and
myself rode down to the ferry on the great river Ni-
agara, and crossed in six minutes. There I saw three
Mohawk Indians carry a bark canoe a considerable
distance and put it in the river, then five of them
got in it and rowed across
in five minutes; said river
is said to be above a mile wide. We then rode to the
mouth of [the] Chippewa, fed our horses and took a
snack, at which place there was a British officer who
was formerly stationed in the neighborhood of the
great Falls, but is now fixed at York, over Lake On-
tario. He being on his way up to Long Point on the
Grand River, he was so much pleased to be in com-
pany with a couple of Quakers that he politely offered
to accompany us to the Falls and show us the way
down. As we rode down the river in view of the
rapids we met I. Bonsal and G. Vaux who had been
taking an upper view. They turned back with us
and we all went to the ladder where the curious are
accustomed to go down, the officer leading the way;
but the tremendous appearance of the way down
discouraged John Shoemaker from attempting it.
The rest of us followed the officer down and then up
the craggy, slippery way to the edge of the great
shoot of water; which together with returning is a
laborious task, for a believe there were but very few
dry threads, either linen or woollen, upon any of us
when we returned. I having four years ago had a
view and given some description of this amazing cat-
aract, need not write much now. While I was view-
ing this superlatively grand and most astonishing
natural curiosity of the kind in the known world, my
curiosity would have been fully satisfied had it not
been for one reflection or consideration, which was
that I knew my wife had a great desire to enjoy the