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Beyond Penn's Treaty

A Mission to the Indians from the Indian Committee of Baltimore Yearly Meeting to Fort Wayne, in 1804

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When the first effectual settlement was
made in Virginia

,* *See Jefferson's Notes on Virginia. which was in the year 1607,
the country from the sea coast to the mountains,
and from the Potomac to the most southern
waters of James river, was occupied by upwards
of forty different tribes of Indians. Of these,
the Powhatans, the Mannahoacs, and Mona-
, were the most powerful. Those between
the falls of the rivers and the mountains were
divided into two confederacies; the tribes in-
habiting the head waters of the Potomac and
Rappahannock being attached to the Manna-
hoars, and those on the upper part of James
river to the Monacans. But the Monacans and
their friends were in amity with the Mannahoars
and their friends, and waged joint and perpetual
war against the Powhatans. We are told that
the Powhatans, Mannahoacs, and Monacans,
spoke languages so radically different, that in-
terpreters were necessary when they transacted
business. Hence we may conjecture that this
was not the case between all the tribes, and prob-
ably that each spoke the language of the nation
to which it was attached, which is known to
have been the case in many particular instances.
Very possibly there may have been anciently
three different stocks, each of which multiplying
in a long course of time, had separated into so
many little societies. This practice results from